The distribution of organisms in the ocean relies heavily on the fact that photosynthesizing organisms need to stay close to the surface, in the illuminated zone.
Typically, the most densely populated areas along the coasts where the seafloor lies shallow, allowing large attached algae, such as brown algae, to grow here.
There is also an influx of nutrients from the land. Corals also settle in shallow water because they need sunlight to live. But they also need water that’s almost devoid of nutrients. nutrients (more on this later).
Now let’s digress from the physical characteristics of water and consider the physical characteristics of coastlines. Although we think of the ocean as a vast expanse of water, many important processes take place on its margins, in the coastal zone.
There is a common belief that the coastal zone ecosystem is very fragile, but in fact, this is not true at all.
It withstands the onslaught of ocean waves and tidal currents. The habitat conditions in this zone are constantly changing, which makes life for the organisms that inhabit it much more difficult. But at the same time, it is one of the most productive ecosystems on Earth.